The Exynos 9825 is the industry's first chipset built on a 7nm Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) process. Its predecessor, the 8nm Exynos 9820, as well as TSMC's 7nm offerings are built on Deep UltraViolet (DUV) process, but that has run out of steam.
In the future, foundries will use EUV to drop below 7nm 5nm chips are already on their roadmaps. So, Samsung Galaxy Note10+'s is just a proving ground for the new technology and is only a minor improvement over the 9820 chip inside the Galaxy S10+.
Samsung claims that it has raised the clock speed of the GPU, but doesn't say how much. The CPU clock speeds were published, but very little has changed. Here's a quick comparison:
Samsung Android Featured Hands-on